Are employers able to use both the general and the recruitment and promotion positive action provisions?

Yes. The general positive action provisions in s.158 of the Equality Act 2010 can be used separately from, or together with, the specific positive action provisions in s.159. For example, in addition to taking positive action in recruitment and promotion under s.159, an employer may try to increase its workplace representation of employees with a particular protected characteristic by having some form of targeted advertising, or providing training aimed at helping employees with a particular protected characteristic who are disadvantaged in the workplace.