In Defrenne v Sabena (No.2)  ECR 455 ECJ, the European Court of Justice held that member states are bound to ensure and maintain the principle of equal pay for equal work as enshrined in Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome. It also held that in cases of direct discrimination, whether by the actions of public authorities or not, Article 119 is directly applicable to national law and gives rise to rights that national courts must protect.
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