Updated to include information on Essop and others v Home Office (UK Border Agency), in which the Supreme Court dealt with disadvantage in the context of indirect discrimination claims.
In Tottenham Green Under Five's Centre v Marshall No. 2 (9 November 1990) EOR37B, the EAT holds that it is not open to an industrial tribunal to disregard a duty in determining whether a genuine occupational qualification exception applies, unless the matter is de minimis or is a sham duty.
In London Borough of Lambeth v Commission for Racial Equality (17 May 1990)EOR32C, the Court of Appeal confirms that the genuine occupational qualification exception to the Race Relations Act relating to the provision of "personal services" promoting welfare should be restricted to jobs involving direct contact between the giver and the recipient.
HR and legal information and guidance relating to race discrimination (genuine occupational requirements).