How do witnesses give evidence at employment tribunal hearings?

Generally, the parties submit written witness statements setting out the witness's evidence to the tribunal prior to the hearing (except in Scotland where this is not routine).

Witness statements will be "taken as read", unless the tribunal orders otherwise. This means that the witness does not have to read the full statement aloud at the hearing before cross examination by the other party. The tribunal could decide that a witness should read out their statement if, for example, the evidence is particularly complex or where it considers that it would help in assessing the credibility of the witness.